Tuesday, August 16, 2005


(Continued from Yesterday's Blog Entry)

The term “jihad” has been bandied about by both Muslims and non-Muslims. Oftentimes, individuals from both of these groups (e.g., fundamentalists of all stripes tend to use words in ways which best express their dogmatic interests) have sought to exploit this word by means of delusional systems which are intended to serve something other than the truth.

In Arabic, jihad is a verbal noun which conveys a sense of striving, struggle, or determined effort. Quite frequently in the Qur’an, the term jihad is followed by the words fi sabil Illah which means: in the way, path, or cause of Allah.

If the ‘way’, ‘path’, or ‘cause’ of Allah were meant to be violent, God wasted an awful lot of time with the thousands of other verses of the Qur’an which explore issues that are far removed from matters of armed conflict. If the ‘way’, ‘path’ or ‘cause’ of Allah were meant to be violent and oppressive (as so many fundamentalists seem to suppose), then, one can’t help but wonder why the Qur’an spends so much time talking about the importance of qualities such as patience, forgiveness, peace, tolerance, kindness, integrity, equitability, charitableness, honesty, modesty, and love.

Mujahid is the active participle of the underlying root and refers to someone who strives, struggles, or makes a determined effort. A mujahid, therefore, is someone who participates in jihad, broadly construed -- which is to say: activities that encompass a wide variety of modes of struggle, striving, and making a determined effort.

In Arabic there are terms which give expression to the idea of armed conflict much more directly, and less ambiguously, than does the word jihad. For instance, both ‘harb’ and ‘qital’ refer to the act of waging war, and, yet, the more ambiguous and nuanced term “jihad” is the word around which discussion revolves.

Those Muslims who are prone to violent solutions to problems don’t say: “Let’s declare ‘harb’ or let’s declare ‘qital’”. They say “We are declaring jihad” because the term “jihad” has a noble spiritual currency in Islam which war-mongers frequently wish to leverage for purposes other than the ‘cause’, or ‘path’ or ‘way’ of Allah.

Under the appropriate circumstances, harb or qital may be subsumed under, or encompassed by, the idea of jihad. However, not all forms of jihad will necessarily be expressed through the waging of armed conflict.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) is reported to have said that ‘one performs the best jihad when one stands up and speaks out against injustice in the face of tyranny and oppression’. Moreover, when asked by A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) about whether women should be participating in the armed conflict which was taking place, Muhammad (peace be upon him) is reported to have said: ‘The best and the most superior Jihad is the Hajj (pilgrimage) which is accepted by Allah’.

Some people claim that the latter saying of the Prophet applies only to women. However, the people who make such an allegation have absolutely no evidential proof concerning what the intention and frame of mind of the Prophet was at the time he is reported to have made the statements about the Hajj which is accepted by God as being the most superior form of jihad. Moreover, those who seek to argue that the foregoing reported words of the Prophet were intended only for women seem to forget that the Prophet accepted the pledge of fidelity, support, and willingness to die in the way of Allah, which was given at Hudaibiyah in 6 A.H., from both women and men.

At the very least, the Prophet’s statement to A’isha demonstrates that jihad can mean something besides armed conflict. In other words, in the foregoing hadith (a saying or tradition which is attributed to the Prophet), Muhammad (peace be upon him) is reportedly using the term jihad to refer to a form of striving and struggle which is other than armed conflict, and, therefore, anyone who wishes to reduce jihad to being nothing more than a synonym for waging war is contradicted by such sayings of the Prophet.

There is also another saying attributed to the Prophet which makes a distinction between the lesser jihad (al-jihad al-asghar) and the greater jihad (al-jihad al-akbar). More specifically, according to this tradition, the Prophet was returning from a physical battle against those who were seeking to oppress, if not destroy, Muslims. The Prophet indicated to those with him that they were going from the lesser jihad to the greater jihad, and when someone asked about what the Prophet meant, the Prophet explained that the physical battle was the lesser jihad and the struggle against one’s inner, carnal soul was the greater jihad.

The foregoing tradition does not appear in any of the major compilations of Hadith. However, this fact, in and of itself, means little more than that the methods used by those who compiled hadiths did not capture or yield the foregoing saying.

In other words, one needs to understand that any given collection of hadiths does not encompass everything which the Prophet actually said but, rather, includes only those sayings or traditions which are considered to be authentic sayings based on the methodology used to collect such sayings. There may be many things which the Prophet said which do not appear in a given compilation of hadiths simply because such sayings either fell outside the reach of those methods or because those methods did not recognize such sayings as being authentic.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) may, or may not, have said the above tradition about the distinction between the greater and lesser jihad. All that can be said is that none of the major sets of compilations contains the aforementioned hadith, but, nevertheless, the hadith is accepted as authentic by many Sufi shaykhs who are well versed in the methodology of hadith compilation, and despite knowing that the above tradition does not appear in any of the major collections, nonetheless, the tradition is accepted by them as authentic.

In order to motivate would-be terrorist candidates, modern-day jihadist extremists like to speak about jihad in terms of its being the most virtuous deed one can perform. They site hadiths such as the following which is narrated by Abu Huraira (may Allah have mercy on his soul) in Volume One of Bukhari:

“A man came to Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) and
said "Instruct me as to such a deed as equals Jihad
(in reward)." The Prophet (peace be upon him) replied,
"I do not find such a deed." Then he added, "While
the Muslim fighter is in the battlefield, can you
enter your place of worship to perform prayers without
cease and fast and never break your fast?" The man
said, "But who can do that?" Abu Huraira (may Allah
have mercy on his soul) added, "The Mujahid (i.e.
the person participating in jihad) is rewarded even
for the footsteps of his horse while it wanders about
(for grazing) tied on a long rope".

In another hadith which is narrated by Abu Said
Khudri (may Allah be pleased with him), somebody
asked, "O Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him)!
Who is the best among the people?" Allah's
Messenger (peace be upon him) replied, "A
believer who performs Jihad with his life
and wealth."

The latter hadith is more general than the former hadith. More specifically, the latter hadith does not mention battlefields or armed conflict, and, consequently, leaves open the possibility that the Prophet (peace be upon him) may have been speaking about jihad in a more inclusive sense, encompassing an array of different kinds of striving which were not restricted just to armed conflict.

The Qur’an indicates that:

“Allah has preferred in grades those who strive hard with their wealth and lives above those who sit (at home). Unto each, Allah has promised salvation, but Allah has preferred those who strive hard above those who sit (at home) by a huge reward." (4: 95).

In the foregoing verse, the Qur’an is clear that those who strive hard with their wealth and lives are preferred above those who merely sit at home and do not use their wealth and lives to struggle in the way of Allah. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the Qur’an also indicates that those who do not strive hard with their wealth and lives are not necessarily condemned thereby but, rather, if they seek to submit in other ways, are promised salvation by God.

In addition, once again, the wording of the Qur’an leaves open the possibility that a broader form of striving is being indicated than just armed conflict. Unfortunately, those individuals who are inclined toward violence often like to interpret the Qur’an according to their own violent inclinations, and they use their predilections to mislead (and, therefore, spiritually abuse) people who are vulnerable while in a state of dissociation and who are, therefore, desperately trying to seek release from their internal turmoil and pain.

More specifically, if someone feels lost, alone, alienated, scattered, hopeless, and without a sense of purpose or identity (i.e., they are in a state of dissociation), and, then, someone comes along and says I know a way for you to have purpose, meaningful identity, hope, a sense of belonging, and focus, then, naturally, the former individual is likely to express some degree of interest in such a ‘solution’. If the person in a condition of dissociation hears, as well, that the aforementioned solution to one’s problems is also the most virtuous deed in the sight of God and that this claim can be proved through verses of the Qur’an as well as through words which the Prophet, himself, has uttered, it is very difficult for a Muslim who is in a dissociated condition not to be very intrigued with such possibilities.

Understanding the foregoing motivational dynamics, ‘leaders’ who are prone to violence and are in need of foot-soldiers for their own agenda will actively troll the waters of society for those individuals who are in a dissociated state and, therefore, who are very vulnerable to anything which appears to offer an escape from their personal, emotional, and spiritual problems. The elements of doing violence to others and sacrificing one’s own life will be introduced at a time, and in a context, when the ‘candidate’ for terrorist acts is likely to be most receptive to the ‘pitch’ which is intended to close the deal which converts someone into a once and future terrorist.

It is interesting that none of the foregoing hadiths or verses of the Qur’an which have been mentioned in the last several pages use the words ‘harb’ or ‘qital’(that is, the Arabic words which unambiguously give expression to waging war and armed conflict). No one, apparently, came to the Prophet and asked him: “Show me a deed that is the equal to ‘harb’ or ‘qital’. Furthermore, the Prophet did not say that he knew of no deed which was the equal of ‘harb’ or ‘qital’.

Moreover, the Qur’an did not say that Allah prefers, by degrees, those who engage in ‘harb’ and ‘qital’ over those who sit at home. Striving with one’s life and wealth can be done in many different ways other than by engaging in armed conflict, and, yet, fundamentalist extremists who are inclined toward violence wish to restrict the meaning of jihad to being only about armed conflict.

Even with respect to the issue of whether, or not, jihad is the most virtuous deed, there are hadiths which indicate that jihad -- independently of how it is understood -- is not necessarily the most virtuous of deeds which a Muslim can perform. For instance, in Volume 1, Book 10, Number 505 of Bukhari, one finds the following tradition which is narrated by 'Abdullah:

“I asked the Prophet "Which deed is the dearest to Allah?" He
replied, "To offer the prayers at their early stated fixed times."
I asked, "What is the next (in goodness)?" He replied, "To be
good and dutiful to your parents". I again asked, "What is the
next (in goodness)?" He replied, 'To participate in Jihad
(spiritual struggle) in Allah's cause."

A variation of the foregoing hadith is reported by Abu Huraira (may Allah have mercy on his soul) in Volume 1, Book 2, Number 25 of Bukhari:

Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) was asked, "What is the
best deed?" He replied, "To believe in Allah and His Apostle
(Muhammad). The questioner then asked, "What is the next
(in goodness)? The Prophet (peace be upon him) replied,
"To participate in Jihad (religious fighting) in Allah's
Cause." The questioner again asked, "What is the next (in
goodness)?" He replied, "To perform Hajj 'Mubrur, (that
pilgrimage which is accepted by Allah and which is
performed with the intention of seeking only Allah's

In Volume 2, Book 15, Number 86 of Bukhari collection of hadiths, Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates the following:

“The Prophet said, "No good deeds done on other days
are superior to those done on these (first ten days of
Dhul Hijja)." Then some companions of the Prophet
said, "Not even Jihad?" He replied, "Not even Jihad,
except that of a man who does it by putting himself
and his property in danger (for Allah's sake) and
does not return with any of those things."

Finally, in another hadith, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is reported to have said:

“There is a polish for everything which takes away
the rust of that which is polished, and the polish
for the heart is the remembrance of God (zikr).

One of the Companions said: “Is not repelling the
infidel like this?” Muhammad (peace be upon him)
said: “No! Even if one fights until one’s sword
is broken.”

In each of the aforementioned hadiths, there are deeds that are being described which, contrary to the proclamation of modern-day jihadists, are better or superior to that of jihad. Moreover, the one exception to the foregoing statement concerns the sort of jihad in which a person places his or her own life and wealth at risk and, then, both dies and loses one’s wealth in the process.

Nonetheless, even in the latter instance, the emphasis is on risking and losing one’s life and wealth rather than on killing others. Modern-day extremist jihadists seek to conflate and confuse the two (that is, willingness to give one’s life and killing others), but the two are not the same.

Indeed, there is another reported hadith which underlies the foregoing emphasis of sacrificing one’s life rather than on the taking of the lives of others. More specifically:

Book 21, Number 21.14.33:

“Yahya related to me from Malik that Yahya ibn Said said,
"The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him
peace, was sitting by a grave which was being dug at Madina.
A man looked into the grave and said, 'A terrible bed for
a believer. 'The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him
and grant him peace, said, 'Terrible? What you have said
is absolutely wrong.' The man said to the Prophet, 'I
didn't mean that, Messenger of Allah. I meant being
killed in the way of Allah.' The Messenger of Allah,
may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Being
killed in the way of Allah has no like!”

The Prophet (peace be upon him) did not say that killing in the way of Allah has no like. He said being killed in the way of Allah has no like.

If one speaks out against tyranny (a form of jihad) and dies in the process, then, according to the foregoing hadith, this is an act which has no like. If one goes on a Hajj that is accepted by Allah (another form of jihad) and dies along the way, then, this kind of action is one of the things for which there are no other non-jihad oriented activities that can compare. If one strives with all one’s life and wealth against one’s own carnal soul (a further form of jihad -- the greater jihad according to authentic Sufi shaykhs), then, this is a form of activity with which non-jihad activities cannot compare.

As indicated previously, on certain occasions, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said that such and such was superior to jihad, while, on other occasions, he seemed to indicate that jihad was superior to all other kinds of activities. When juxtaposed next to one another, some people may be inclined to consider such traditions to be contradictory.

However, the Prophet is reported to have counseled people to speak with others according to the level of understanding of those with whom one was speaking. Consequently, quite plausibly, depending on circumstances, audience, and the Prophet’s own spiritual state at the time of a given discussion, the Prophet may have emphasized certain actions at some junctures to certain people, while emphasizing other actions at certain junctures to people of a different level of understanding or who had a different set of needs to be addressed which took priority under a different set of circumstances.

All of the guidance was valid, and all of the teachings, when properly delineated, could be reconciled with one another. However, how the spiritual material was presented, as well as what kind of emphasis would be given to such material, might vary from situation to situation and from person to person.

For example, during Hajj, different people came to the Prophet and indicated they had performed the various rites of pilgrimage in a certain sequence. They were seeking assurances from the Prophet that what they had done was correct.

The sequence of steps observed by these individuals was different in a number of instances. Yet, the Prophet is reported to have indicated that all such sequences were acceptable.

Similarly, there was a time when one of the Companions heard someone reciting the Qur’an in a way which was different from the way in which he recited the Qur’an. Since the latter individual had learned to recite from the Prophet, he took exception with that manner of reciting the Qur’an which differed from his.

They both went to the Prophet in order to discuss the situation. After providing demonstrations of their respective modes of reciting the Qur’an, they were informed that both styles of Quranic recitation were correct, and, in fact, there were seven different major modes of reciting the Qur’an, along with a larger number of minor variations, all of which were acceptable.

Consequently, just because different people may understand something in a variety of ways does not necessarily mean, in, and of itself, that all such understandings can’t simultaneously be true. Truth may admit to a variety of degrees of freedom, and unfortunately, God’s truth tends to be far more expansive than is the willingness of people who insist on making truth conform to their narrow, inflexible, dogmatic, limited, and, quite frequently, error-riddled conceptions of that truth.

Notwithstanding all of the foregoing considerations, one should try to keep certain factors in mind when thinking about hadiths of any kind. First of all, and quite ironically, there are hadiths which indicate that the Prophet did not approve of people making compilations of his sayings, and, as well, there are hadiths which indicate that on a number of different occasions the Prophet had such collections brought to him and destroyed.

Ibn Saeed Al-Khudry reported that Prophet Muhammad said:

"Do not write anything from me except Qur’an. Anyone who
wrote anything other than the Quran shall erase it."

In another tradition, some thirty years after the Prophet had
passed away, Zayd Ibn Thabit, a close companion of the Prophet,
visited the Khalifa Mu'aawiyah and related a story about the
Prophet which Mu'aawiyah liked. Mu’aawiyah ordered someone to
write the story down. But Zayd said: "the messenger of God
ordered us never to write down anything of his hadith."

In another tradition narrated by Abu Huraira, the messenger
of God was informed that some people are writing his hadiths.
The Prophet took to the pulpit of the mosque and said, "What
are these books that I heard you wrote? I am just a human
being. Anyone who has any of these writings should bring it
here.” Abu Huraira said we collected all these writings and
burned them.”

Abu Bakr Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with) had a collection of some 500 hadiths of the Prophet. However, after hearing from the Prophet (peace be upon him) about the dire consequences which might befall anyone who perpetrated untruths concerning what the Prophet said, this close Companion of the Prophet burned his collection of sayings after spending the night struggling over the issue of whether, or not, to retain his set of traditions.

Hazrat ‘Umar and Bibi A’isha (may Allah be pleased with them both) each had disagreements over the accuracy and authenticity of a variety of hadiths which had been collected and related by Abu Huraira (may Allah have mercy on him). Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him) was among the first to begin compiling a collection of alleged Prophetic sayings and who, despite only being in the company of the Prophet for a few years had, apparently, collected thousands of hadiths more than people who had spent decades in the company of the Prophet.

During the time when Hazrat ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) was Caliph, he directed Abu Huraira (may Allah have mercy on his soul) to stop reporting hadiths to others as a result of these disagreements concerning the extent of the authenticity and accuracy of some of the traditions being reported by the latter individual. Abu Huraira (may Allah have mercy on his soul) complied with this directive until after Hazrat ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) was assassinated, at which point Abu Huraira (may Allah have mercy on his soul) began, again, to promulgate his collection of hadiths

In another context, Caliph, Hazrat ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) appointed Abu Huraira (may Allah have mercy on his soul) to be governor of a certain region. However, after a time, the Caliph recalled his governor and asked him to explain how someone who had assumed such a position with no money had accumulated so much money in such a short period of time and required his governor to turn over a substantial portion of the money which the governor had accumulated during his tenure.

One of the conditions or requirements devised by later traditionalists, such as Bukhari and his student, Muslim, for determining which hadiths were to be accepted as authentic and which ones were to be rejected revolved about the moral character of the individuals who were part of the isnad, or chain of transmission, for a given saying. Without wishing to pass any final judgment about the quality of the character of Abu Huraira (may Allah have mercy upon his soul), nonetheless, the foregoing discussion concerning disagreements about whether, or not, Abu Huraira (may Allah have mercy on his soul) was reporting Prophetic sayings accurately and whether, or not, he had conducted himself with integrity when a governor during the Caliphacy of Hazrat ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) tend to raise the sorts of question which might have disqualified Abu Huraira (may Allah have mercy on his soul) as a reliable source of hadiths. However, this is not the case, and, as a result, one finds many sayings among the major collections of hadith that are attributed to the Prophet, yet which are traced back to Abu Huraira (may Allah have mercy upon his soul) as the primary narrator.

In addition to the foregoing considerations, one might also reflect upon the following facts. Muslim, who was a student of Bukhari and who became a prominent compiler of hadiths in his own right (and both of these compilers of traditions began their work several hundred years after the Prophet had passed away), rejected more than four hundred of the hadiths which his mentor considered to be authentic, while Bukhari rejected some 4-500 hadiths which his student, Muslim, considered to be authentic.

None of the compilers of hadith are the Prophet (peace be upon him), and none of the compilers of hadith are the Qur’an. Even when what is reported by compilers of tradition are authentic and accurate, these compilations do not necessarily provide any clues about the intention with which the Prophet said such things, or toward what kind of an audience (whether restricted or general) instruction was being directed by the Prophet, or what the meaning was of what the Prophet may have said.

The foregoing comments are not intended to demonstrate that there is no such thing as an authentic hadith of the Prophet. Rather, the previous discussion is meant to induce a certain amount of caution when thinking about reported hadiths and whether, or not, and the extent to which, one believes that such hadiths ought to govern one’s life -- this is especially the case in situations where one is being told that killing other people or doing violence to other people is the greatest virtue a Muslim can perform -- which many fundamentalist, extremist, jihadist leaders attempt to claim.

Whatever one’s views may be with respect to the authenticity of this or that hadith, the foregoing demonstrates that would-be terrorist leaders can site the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) as a authority for terrorist activities only by either completely ignoring hadiths which contradict their point of view, and/or selectively interpreting the traditions of the Prophet, and/or failing to consider individual hadiths against a far larger backdrop of teachings from the hadith and Qur’an which are intended to place limits on, as well as modulate in various ways, traditions which are being removed from, or considered independently of, a much larger context of spiritual guidance.

As a result, vulnerable people -- that is, those who often are in dissociative states and are seeking solutions for the pain, stress, doubt, anxiety, fear and so on of felt dissociation -- are not permitted by terrorist ‘leaders’ to explore all sides of a spiritual issue. Instead, these spiritually abusive ‘leaders’ present only that information which usually has been reframed, or deliberately distorted, or taken out of context and, therefore, removed from the limiting influence of other kinds of spiritual values and teachings which also should be taken into consideration before any decision is reached in a given matter -- for example, whether to commit violence against others.

In addition to the foregoing sorts of consideration, there are some individuals who -- lacking in tools of faith and, as a result, are inclined to resort to tools of violence as a way of ‘settling’ matters –- these individuals seek to frame the situation in ways that ‘help’ identify those people who should be the ‘rightful’ objects of their violence. For instance, there are some Muslims who have divided up the world into Dar al-Islam (the Abode of Islam) and Dar al-Harb (the Abode of War). Some of these same Muslims have further subdivided Dar al-Harb into People of the Book and polytheists.

Although both the Prophet and the Qur’an do speak about Muslims, people of the Book, and polytheists, neither the Prophet nor the Qur’an speaks in terms of Dar al-Islam and Dar al-Harb. These are concepts developed by theologians, jurists, philosophers, and others who arose after the Prophet passed away and who were advancing their own theoretical hermeneutics concerning their understanding of things.

The fact of the matter is there are parts of the Muslim world which are engaged in harb, while there are parts of the non-Muslim world which are not so engaged. If Dar al-Harb is meant to refer to those parts of the world which at war with faith, then, there are times when some Muslims should, themselves, be included in Dar al-Harb, just as there are times when the peace and submission to God which prevails in some non-Muslim communities would render them to be part of Dar al-Islam.

Furthermore, there is prima facie evidence from the Qur’an that placing People of the Book within Dar al-Harb is actually a mistake. For example, in the Qur’an, one finds the following verses:

[2:62] “Surely, those who believe, those who are Jewish, the Christians, and the converts; anyone who (1) believes in Allah, and (2) believes in the Last Day, and (3) leads a righteous life, will receive their recompense from their Lord. They have nothing to fear, nor will they grieve.”

[5:69] “Surely, those who believe, those who are Jewish, the converts, and the Christians; any of them who (1) believe in Allah and (2) believe in the Last Day, and (3) lead a righteous life, have nothing to fear, nor will they grieve.”

In addition, one also finds the following verses in different parts of the Qur’an:

[2:136] “Say, "We believe in Allah, and in what was sent down to us, and in what was sent down to Abraham, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob, and the Patriarchs; and in what was given to Moses and Jesus, and all the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction among any of them. To Him alone we are submitters."

[2:285] “The messenger has believed in what was sent down to him from his Lord, and so did the believers. They believe in Allah, His angels, His scripture, and His messengers: "We make no distinction among any of His messengers." They say, "We hear, and we obey. Forgive us, our Lord. To You is the ultimate destiny."

[3:84] Say, "We believe in Allah, and in what was sent down to us, and in what was sent down to Abraham, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob, and the Patriarchs, and in what was given to Moses, Jesus, and the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction among any of them. To Him alone we are submitters."

[4:150] Those who disbelieve in Allah and His messengers, and seek to make distinction among Allah and His messengers, and say, "We believe in some and reject some," and wish to follow a path in between;

[4:151] these are the real disbelievers. We have prepared for the disbelievers a shameful retribution.”

To claim that People of the Book, Jews, Christians, converts, or anyone who believes in God, and in the Last Day, and seeks to do righteous works are not members of Dar al-Islam seems, at the very least, a problematic notion. Moreover, to try to claim that distinctions should be made among the Prophets in the sense that the followers of some should be assigned to Dar al-Islam and the followers of others should be assigned to Dar al-Harb is inconsistent with what the foregoing verses of the Qur’an are directing Muslims to do and, in fact, is precisely the sort of thing about which the Qur’an is seeking to warn believers to avoid in 4: 150-151, noted above. Finally, to use such terms as ‘harbis’ with respect to people who do believe in God and the Last Day, and who seek to do righteous works -- and, therefore, actually are, from the perspective of the Qur’an, among those who, according to their understanding, submit to God -- seems arbitrary, arrogant, presumptuous, lacking in humility, and unjustifiably discriminatory.

(To be continued tomorrow, God Willing)

Anab Whitehouse

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